Stories about Holy Rosary
Period: 11 February to 16 July 1858
Place: Lourdes, a small village in France
Incident: Holy Mary revealed herself 18 times to 14-year-old Bernadette
In 1858, Our Blessed Mother appeared eighteen times to Bernadette Soubirous in a small French village called Lourdes. Our Blessed Mother’s messages to Bernadette transcend time and are applicable to all of us today.
Born on 7th January 1844, Bernadette Soubirous was the eldest child of Francois Soubirous and his wife Louise (nee Casterot). As a miller, Francois provided a comfortable living for his family. Bernadette had a total of six brothers and two sisters, but only three of her siblings lived beyond the age of ten. The tragic losses bonded the Soubirous family in love and gave them strength. The family was always at peace and the parents were never heard quarrelling. Thanks to the solid foundation of her family, Bernadette was emotionally balanced as she dealt with problems, poverty and illnesses.
The Soubirous’ lives were changed as a result of a series of events beginning in 1854. Bernadette’s father, Francois, was falsely accused of stealing two sacks of flour and was imprisoned for a considerable period of time. Wheat harvest and as a result work at Francois’ mill were seriously affected by a 2-year drought. Finally, the steam mills which sprang up from the Industrial Revolution put Francois’s mill out of business. Francois became unemployed and the family was reduced to living in a one-room dwelling called the Cachot, a former jail.
Around this time, Bernadette contracted cholera and she suffered physically for the rest of her live as a result of her high fevers. She also suffered on the emotional front as she felt the heart ache of social exclusion as people branded her family members as the ones who lived in the Cachot.
Bernadette could not go to school because of her physical illness. At 14, she spoke only the dialect of Lourdes and could not read, write or speak French. Unfortunately, the Catechism was taught in French only in those days. She went to Mass but was not allowed to receive Holy Communion until Fr Pomian prepared her for her First Holy Communion. Sometimes the poor girl’s only comfort was her mother’s love. Yet there was something special about Bernadette that moved the Hosts of Heavenly Hearts and she was blessed with 18 divine apparitions. These apparitions changed the world forever and made Bernadette a name to remember.
The First Apparition – Thursday, 11 February 1858
After dinner on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday, Bernadette’s mother discovered that there was no more wood in the house, so Bernadette, her sister Toinette, and a neighbour friend, Jeanne Abade, went to the river Gave to gather wood. The girls had to cross a stream of cold water to get to their destination. Fearing that she would have an asthma attack, Bernadette stayed on the bank while the other two girls crossed the stream and gathered wood under the grotto along the river Gave.
While she was waiting for her companions to return, Bernadette heard a great noise that sounded like a big storm, but the air was still. She was scared by this phenomenon. She managed to stand up but found that she had lost all powers of speech and thought. She turned her head towards to Grotto of Massabieille and saw a single rosebush moving in the opening of the rock as if it was very windy. Then she saw a golden-coloured cloud emerge from the interior of the grotto. After that, a young and exceedingly beautiful Lady, whose beauty was unparalleled, came out from the interior of the grotto and stood at the entrance of the opening above the rosebush.
The Lady looked at Bernadette, smiled and signaled Bernadette to advance, the same way a mother would motion her child to approach her. Bernadette noticed that the Lady had a rosary on her right arm, so she took out her Rosary and knelt before the Lady. Bernadette then tried to recite the rosary. As she tried to make the sign of the cross, she found that her right arm was paralyzed. It was only after the Lady had made the sign of the cross that Bernadette was able to move her arm and made the sign of the cross. As Bernadette prayed the rosary, the Lady remained silent but passed the beads of her rosary between her fingers. She did recite the Gloria’s with Bernadette. When the recitation of the rosary was over, the Lady and the golden-coloured cloud disappeared into the grotto.
Bernadette told her sister Toinette what she saw and asked her to keep it a secret. The image of the Lady became ingrained in Bernadette’s mind.
At family prayer one evening, Bernadette felt troubled and began to cry. Bernadette’s mother wanted to know what happened and Toinette told their mother everything. Bernadette’s mother concluded that what Bernadette saw were illusions and forbade her to return to Massabieille.
Bernadette could not sleep that night. The face of the Lady, so good and gracious, kept returning to Bernadette’s thoughts. Her mother’s words had no effects on her because she did not believe her encounters were illusions. She was very certain of what she saw. She described the Beautiful Lady in detail as follows:
“She looks like a young girl of sixteen or seventeen. She has on a white robe girded at the waist with a flowing blue ribbon. A yoke closes the robe in graceful pleats at the base of the neck. The sleeves are long and tight-fitting. She also dons a long white veil. The waist-length veil reveals just a glimpse of her hair. Her bare feet are covered by the folds of the robe except at the points where a yellow rose shines on each of the feet. On her right arm is a rosary with white beads and a gold chain shinning like the two roses on her feet.”
The Second Apparition – Sunday, 14 February 1858
On Sunday, Bernadette’s mother allowed her to return to the grotto. Armed with a vial of holy water, she returned to the grotto with Toinette and Jeanne. If what their elders said was true, they might need the holy water to ward off bad spirits. When Bernadette saw the Lady, instead of throwing the water at the Lady, she poured the water quietly on the ground. Then she turned to Toinette and Jeanne and told them that, judging by the Beautiful Lady’s smile, She was pleased by what Bernadette had just done. Toinette and Jeanne, who had just thrown a stone for fun, were scared by what they had just seen and began to run from the scene. Toinette returned to Cachot and poured out her story. Her mother grabbed a twig and headed for the site. By this time, Bernadette’s encounters have become the gossip topic of the whole town.
Lucky for Bernadette, Madame Millet, a local woman of considerable prominence, interpreted the apparitions differently from most of the people of the town. She got permission from Bernadette’s mother to let Bernadette accompany her and a friend, Antoinette Peyret, to the grotto.
The Third Apparition – Thursday, 18 February 1858
Madam Millet, Antoinette and Bernadette went to early Mass before setting out for the grotto. Madame Millet carried a blessed candle; Antoinette a pen, paper and ink to record anything that might be said. The Beautiful Lady said to Bernadette, “There is no need for me to write down what I have to say to you. Will you be so kind as to come here every day for fifteen days?” The Lady did not say why she wanted Bernadette to come and did not promise that Bernadette would be happy in this world. But she did promise that happiness would be waiting for Bernadette in heaven.
The Fourth Apparition – Friday, 19 February 1858
Bernadette’s parents, her aunt and some neighbours went to the grotto with Bernadette. Shortly after Bernadette began to pray the Rosary, everyone there noticed that her face was transfigured and became illuminated.
The Fifth Apparition – Saturday, 20 February 1858
The Beautiful Lady taught Bernadette a prayer. Bernadette never revealed the prayer to anyone, but she recited it daily for the rest of her life. She was told to always bring a blessed candle with her. As a result, candles now burn perpetually at the Shrine.
The Sixth Apparition – Sunday, 21 February 1858
The Beautiful Lady told Bernadette to ”pray for sinners” and Bernadette did not fail the Lady. Several hundred people assembled to witness Bernadette’s encounters on that day. Among the crowd was Dr. Dozous, a prominent physician in Lourdes. He examined Bernadette and told the crowd that he could not find anything abnormal about Bernadette’s physical condition. Even when her mental state was trancelike, “her pulse was regular, her respiration easy, and nothing indicated nervous excitement.”
The citizens of the town called a meeting at which sharp differences of opinion were expressed regarding the apparitions. The citizens were concerned about the dangers that could result from gatherings of such large crowds and they persuaded the Procurer Imperial, M. Dutour, to officially forbid Bernadette to return to the grotto. Bernadette refused to give her word to refrain from going to the grotto because she had promised the Beautiful Lady she would go. Dutour dismissed her, and discussed this matter with two local officials – M. Jacomet, the Chief of Police, and M. Estrade. The twist of the story was that Estrade was to become Bernadette’s and Dutour’s friend. He was to perform an invaluable service by listening in at future conversations between M. Jacomet and Bernadette and diligently recording the conversations word-for-word.
At one meeting of which Estrade recorded, M. Jacomet deliberately tried to confuse Bernadette to see if she would change her account of the apparitions. Bernadette stood by her story and M. Jacomet’s attempt failed. M. Jacomet could do nothing except to release Bernadette to the custody of her father. M. Jacomet gave him a warning that he should take her home and guarantee that there would be no further disturbances. But the interior call which was urging Bernadette on was stronger than any earthly warning and promise and on Monday, February 22, Bernadette returned to the grotto after school. Two policemen saw her and followed her. So did the usual crowd. The policemen kept their distance as she knelt down in her accustomed place. When she arose, the policemen sprang forward and asked her if she still insisted that she had seen a Beautiful Lady. “No, this time I saw nothing at all,” she answered. She was allowed to go home, but she was mocked and threatened. People said mockingly that the Beautiful Lady was afraid of the policemen and had chosen to avoid the police by going to a safer place.
The Seventh Apparition – Tuesday, 23 February 1858
Approximately two hundred people gathered to witness the apparition. When Bernadette’s appearance was once again transformed, the men removed their hats and knelt on their knees. Bernadette appeared to be gravely serious and attentive in listening to someone speak, and then she became joyful. She also bowed from time to time. At the end of the hour-long vision, Bernadette moved on her knees toward the rosebush and kissed the ground. When asked what the Lady had said, Bernadette simply replied that the Lady had entrusted her with three secrets which were never revealed.
The Eighth Apparition – Wednesday, 24 February 1858
On this occasion, Bernadette turned and faced the crowd of more than four hundred, and reiterated the word “penitence” three times.
The Ninth Apparition – Thursday, 25 February 1858
This time, the Beautiful Lady told Bernadette to “drink from the fountain and bathe in it.” Bernadette was puzzled because there had never been a fountain, or any kind of a natural spring, at Massabieille. She began to scratch the loose gravel off the ground around her. She gradually found that the ground beneath her was moist. In time, a little pool emerged and bubbles were rising from it. She cupped her hands together , collected water from the pool, drank, and then also washed her face with the pool water. The next day, the pool overflew and water was dripping down over the rock. The following day, the trickle had grown into a real stream. Skeptics said that the spring had been there all the time and it just was not noticed until Bernadette dug it up. Despite the skepticism, Bernadette did locate the spring as a result of a direct divine command.
The Tenth Apparition – Saturday, 27 February 1858
On this occasion, the Beautiful Lady told Bernadette to “kiss the ground on behalf of sinners.” She immediately obeyed and the crowd did the same.
The Eleventh Apparition – Sunday, 28 February 1858
Two thousand spectators gathered at the grotto in the morning. The Lady asked Bernadette to relay a message to the clergy that a chapel was to be built on the site of the grotto.
The Twelfth Apparition – Monday, 1 March 1858
This time, the Lady noticed and made a remark to Bernadette that Bernadette was not using her own Rosary. The Lady was right. Pauline Sans had asked Bernadette to use her Rosary at the grotto that day and Bernadette complied.
The Thirteenth Apparition – Tuesday, 2 March 1858
Bernadette arrived at the grotto early in the morning. She prayed the Rosary in the presence of the Lady. The Lady remained silent throughout Bernadette’s prayers except for the Gloria’s.
The Fourteenth Apparition – Wednesday, 3 March 1858
The Lady reiterated that She wanted a chapel built by the clergy and, additionally, She wanted people to come to the new chapel in processional form. Bernadette was terribly afraid of the clergy, Abbe Peyramale. It had been difficult for her to go to him the first time about building a chapel. To have to go to him a second time took a great deal of courage, but she did do as the Lady asked. The clergy dismissed Bernadette curtly, ordering her to tell the Beautiful Lady that the Cure of Lourdes did not deal with mysterious strangers; that if She wanted a chapel, if She indeed had a right to one, She must reveal Her identity.
The Fifteenth Apparition – Thursday, 4 March 1858
By now, almost everyone in France knew that 4th March was the last of the fifteen days that Bernadette had promised the Lady that she would be at the grotto. Twenty thousand people, including an entire military garrison in full-dress uniform, came to watch the event. As Bernadette approached the apparition site, the soldiers respectfully cleared a path for her. After the apparition, Bernadette told the crowd that she would continue coming to the grotto because the Beautiful Lady had not said farewell yet. The crowd was disappointed and disillusioned. They had seen Bernadette transfigured with a strange radiance, but they had hoped to be able to share her vision and to hear the same voice that she did. They also hoped that, at the very least, they would see the rosebush burst into a sudden miraculous bloom.
The Sixteenth Apparition – Friday, 25 March 1858
On the Feast of the Annunciation, the Beautiful Lady revealed Her identity to Bernadette, “Que soy era Immaculado Conception” – I am the Immaculate Conception. Bernadette was not sure what this name meant, but people needed no further explanation and flocked to Lourdes in greater numbers than ever before. Baron Massy, a local official, ordered Bernadette to be examined by three more physicians who found her to be physically and mentally sound.
The Seventeenth Apparition – Wednesday, 7 April 1858
Bernadette had always brought a lit candle to the grotto after being told to do so by the Beautiful Lady. During this apparition, she unconsciously placed one of her hands over the flame of the candle. People saw the flame burning through her fingers. Bernadette was so absorbed that she did not even hear the cries of horror from the crowd. She prayed on for at least fifteen minutes while the flame burnt through her hand. She emerged from her prayer unscathed. Dr. Dozous then took another candle and, without warning, put the flame in contact with her hand. Bernadette immediately cried out in pain. Shortly after this apparition, the Prefect took matters into his own hands and ordered to close the grotto and to dismantle the rustic altar.
The Eighteenth Apparition – Friday, 16 July 1858
With the closure of the grotto, Bernadette seemed to be relieved that she was not receiving so much public attention. Several months later, after receiving communion on the feast of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, Bernadette suddenly felt an irresistible urge to return to the grotto. Bernadette got her aunt to go to the grotto with her. Because there was a barricade in place, she and her aunt could not get very close to the sacred spot, so they knelt in the grass nearby. The Beautiful Lady appeared to Bernadette one last time.
Bernadette eventually joined the order of the Sisters of Charity. Her health was an issue throughout her short life but she attended diligently to her duties as infirmarian and sacristan. She died a holy death on 16 April 1879 at the age of 34. Bernadette was buried on the grounds of a convent in Nevers, France. Thirty years later on 22 September 1909, her body was exhumed in the presence of two doctors, several appointed officials, and a number of nuns from the local convent. When Bernadette's coffin was opened, it was found that there was no odor and that the laws of nature had not affected her body at all.
Ten years later on 3 April 1919, a second exhumation took place. The body of Bernadette, the then declared Venerable, was found in the same condition as ten years earlier, except that the face was slightly discolored as a result of the washing applied during the first exhumation. A wax worker was given the task of coating the face of the Saint who had been dead forty years. Bernadette's body, a sacred relic, is now in a coffin of gold and glass and is available for viewing in the Chapel of Saint Bernadette at the motherhouse in Nevers, France.
Period: 13 May 1917 to 13 October 1917
Place: Fatima, a small Portuguese village about seventy miles north of Lisbon
Incident: Holy Mary revealed herself 6 times to three children – Lucia dos Santos, aged ten; Lucia’s cousin Francisco Marto, aged eight; and Francisco’s sister Jacinta, aged seven.
13 May 1917
The three children took their sheep to pasture on the Cova da Iria. After lunch and the rosary, they suddenly saw a bright and powerful flash of light in the clear blue sky. The light, as bright and powerful as lightning, was followed quickly by another flash.
The children looked up and saw, in Lucia's words, "a lady, dressed in dazzling white, radiating a light more clear and intense than a crystal cup which is filled with sparkling water and lit by burning sunlight." The children stood there in awe. They found themselves bathed in the light that surrounded the apparition. The Lady smiled and said to the children, "Do not be afraid, I will not harm you." Lucia, being the oldest in the group, spoke for the group and asked the Lady where she came from.
The Lady pointed to the sky and said, "I come from heaven." Lucia then asked her what she wanted. The Lady’s reply went like this, "I have come to ask you to come here for six months on the 13th day of the month at this same hour. Later I shall tell you who I am and what I want. And I shall return yet a seventh time."
Lucia then asked if they would go to heaven. The Lady said that Lucia and Jacinta would go to heaven, but Francisco would need to say many more rosaries before he could go. The Lady then asked the children, "Are you willing to offer yourselves to God and bear all the sufferings He wants you to bear as an act of reparation for the conversion of sinners?" Lucia spoke for all three and replied in the affirmative. The Lady then told them that, "Then you will have much to suffer, but the grace of God will be your comfort."
As the Lady said these words, she opened her hands and streamed a "light" on the children, allowing them to see themselves in God. The Lady finished with the request to "Say the Rosary every day, to bring peace to the world and the end of the war." She then began to rise into the air and gradually disappeared into the east.
The children put their heads together and tried to think of ways whereby they could make sacrifices as the Lady had asked. They resolved to go without lunch and to pray the full rosary. Francisco and Jacinta were more fortunate than Lucia in that they received more support from their parents. However, all three had to face the local community’s skepticism and even derisory attitudes. The children did have much to suffer, just as the Lady had predicted.
13 June 1917
On 13 June, about fifty people turned up at the Cova da Iria as the children assembled near the holmoak tree where the Lady had appeared the previous month. The children then saw a flash of light, which was followed immediately by the apparition of Mary. Mary told Lucia that, "I want you to come on the 13th day of the next month, to pray the Rosary every day, and to learn to read. In time, I will tell you what I desire."
Lucia asked Mary to take them to heaven. Mary reassured Lucia, "I will take Jacinta and Francisco shortly; but you will stay here for some time to come. Jesus wants you to make Me known and loved. He wishes to establish the devotion to My Immaculate Heart throughout the world. I promise salvation to whoever desires it; these souls will be dear to God, like the flowers I use to adorn his throne." Ten years later, in 1927, the last sentence of Mary’s utterances was cited in a letter from Sr. Lucia to her confessor.
Lucia was upset by the first part of this reply and asked, "Am I to stay here alone?" Mary replied, "No, my daughter. Are you suffering a lot? Don't lose heart. I will never forsake you. My Immaculate Heart will be your refuge and will be the way that will lead you to God."
Maria Carreira, one of the witnesses to this apparition, remembered how Lucia then cried out and pointed in the direction of Mary’s departure. Maria heard a noise like a rocket which was a long way off. She saw a small cloud, a few inches over the tree, rise and move slowly towards the east until it disappeared into the horizon. The crowd of pilgrims then returned to Fatima and reported the amazing things they had seen. This publicity generated a lot of interest and two to three thousand people gathered for the July apparition.
13 July 1917
The three children assembled at the Cova and once again they saw the indescribably beautiful Lady over the holmoak tree. Lucia asked her what she wanted and got this reply, "I want you to come here on the 13th of the next month and to continue to pray the Rosary every day in honour of Our Lady of the Rosary. Only She can help you obtain peace for the world and the end of the war."
Lucia then asked for her identity and for a miracle so everyone would believe. She was told, "Continue to come here every month. In October, I will tell you who I am and what I desire, and I will perform a miracle for all to see and believe."
Lucia made some requests for sick people. Mary said that she would cure some but not others, and that all who wish to obtain such graces must say the rosary. She continued, "Sacrifice yourselves for sinners, and say many times, especially when you make a sacrifice, ‘O Jesus, it is for love of You, for the conversion of sinners, and in reparation for the sins committed against the Immaculate Heart of Mary.’ "
The vision of hell
As Mary spoke these words, She opened her hands and rays of light from her hands seemed to penetrate the earth so that the children saw a terrifying vision of hell, full of demons and lost souls amidst indescribable horrors.
This vision of hell was the first part of the "secret" of Fatima, and the secret was not revealed until much later. The children looked up to the sad face of the Blessed Virgin, who spoke to them kindly:
"You have seen hell where the souls of poor sinners go. To save them, God wishes to establish devotion to my Immaculate Heart. If what I say to you is done, many souls will be saved and there will be peace. The war will end. But if people do not cease offending God, a worse one will break out during the pontificate of Pius XI. When you see an unknown light illuminating the night, be warned that this is the great sign given by God that he is about to punish the world for its crimes through war, famine and persecutions of the Church and of the Holy Father.
"To prevent this, I shall come to ask for the consecration of Russia to my Immaculate Heart and the Communion of Reparation on the First Saturdays. If my requests are met, Russia will be converted, and there will be peace. If not, Russia will spread her errors throughout the world, causing wars and persecutions of the Church. The good will be martyred, the Holy Father will suffer a great deal and various nations will be annihilated. But in the end, my Immaculate Heart will triumph. The Holy Father will consecrate Russia to me and she will be converted, and the world will be granted a period of peace."
At this point, the second part of the secret of Fatima ended and the third part began with the words, "In Portugal the dogma of the faith will always be preserved ... " The first two parts of the secret only became publicly known in 1942. The third part of the secret was only publicly divulged in June 2000.
Mary specifically told Lucia not to tell anyone, apart from Francisco, about the secret at this stage. She continued, "When you pray the Rosary, say after each mystery ‘O my Jesus, forgive us, save us from the fire of hell. Lead all souls to heaven, especially those who are most in need.’ " Mary then disappeared into the distance as there was no further instructions for Lucia.
As 13 August drew near, the story of the apparitions had reached the anti-religious secular press. This had two effects. First, the whole country knew about Fatima. Second, many biased and negative reports were circulating.
The Mayor of Vila Nova de Ourem, Arturo Santos, kidnapped the children on the morning of the 13th. The Mayor interrogated the children about the secret. But despite his threats and promises of money, the children refused to divulge it. In the afternoon of the same day, they were moved to the local prison and were threatened with death. But they were determined that they would die rather than reveal the secret.
Late in the afternoon of 19 August, the three children were assembled at a place called Valinhos, near Fatima. There, they saw Mary, who said it was a pity that they got kidnapped. She told Lucia, "Go again to the Cova da Iria on the 13th and continue to say the Rosary every day." Mary also said she would perform a miracle, so all would believe.
Looking very sad, Mary then said, "Pray and make sacrifices for sinners; for many souls will go to hell, because there is no-one to sacrifice and pray for them." With this, she rose into the air and disappeared into the east.
By now the children had completely absorbed Mary's plea for prayer and penance, and did everything they could to answer it. They lied on the ground and prayed for hours. They went as long as they could without drinking any fluid in the burning heat of the Portuguese summer. They went without food as a sacrifice for sinners in order to save them from hell, the vision of which had deeply affected them. They even knotted some pieces of old rope around their waists as a form of mortification and wore the rope pieces day and night.
13 September 1917
On 13 September, very large crowds converged on Fatima from all directions. The children arrived around noon. After the usual flash of light, they saw Mary on the holmoak tree. She spoke to Lucia, "Continue to pray the Rosary in order to end the war. Our Lord will come in October, so will Our Lady of Dolours and Our Lady of Carmel. Saint Joseph will appear with the Child Jesus to bless the world. God is pleased with your sacrifices but He does not want you to sleep with the rope pieces on. He only wants you to wear them during the day."
Lucia then began to petition for cures and was told, "Yes, I will cure some, but not others. In October I will perform a miracle so that all may believe." With this she rose, moved in an easterly direction, and disappeared.
13 October 1917
The proclamation of a public miracle caused very intense speculation throughout Portugal. Avelino de Almeida, a journalist, published a satirical article on the matter in the anti-religious newspaper O Seculo. Tens of thousands of people from every part of the country descended on the Cova despite the terrible storm that lashed the mountain area around Fatima on 12 October. Many pilgrims went barefooted, reciting the rosary as they went. The bad weather and heavy rain on 13 October did not deter the crowds.
The children reached the holmoak around noon. As usual, they saw the flash of light as Mary appeared before them. For the last time, Lucia asked what the Lady wanted and was told, "I want a chapel built here in my honour. I am the Lady of the Rosary. Continue always to pray the Rosary every day. The war is going to end, and the soldiers will return to their homes soon."
Again, Lucia made her requests for the sick and was told that people must amend their lives and ask for forgiveness of their sins if they wanted healings or conversions. Mary then grew very sad and said, "Do not offend the Lord our God any more, because He is already very offended." Then she rose into the air with her hands opened towards the sun, growing more brilliant as she did. The image of Mary disappeared and was replaced by various visions seen only by the children.
The Bishop approves of Fatima
The Church had maintained its silence about the apparitions for a number of years. In May 1922, Bishop Correia issued a pastoral letter on the subject, indicating that he would set up a commission of enquiry. In 1930, he issued another pastoral letter on the apparitions, which, after recounting the events at Fatima, contained the following brief but important statement.
"… in virtue of considerations made known, and others omitted for brevity; humbly invoking the Divine Spirit and placing ourselves under the protection of the most Holy Virgin, and after hearing the opinions of our Rev. Advisors in this diocese, we hereby: 1. Declare worthy of belief, the visions of the shepherd children in the Cova da Iria, parish of Fatima, in this diocese, from the 13th May to 13th October, 1917. 2. Permit officially the cult of Our Lady of Fatima."